Monday, June 18, 2012

Agreeing and Disagreeing with Kindleberger (and Delong and Eichengreen)

. Monday, June 18, 2012

This post is basically to point to the new preface by Brad DeLong and Barry Eichengreen to Kindleberger's The World In Depression 1929-1939. I'm glad the book is being reprinted, and I am in agreement with all of DeLong & Eichengreen's intro. Except this part:

Kindleberger’s second key lesson, closely related, is the power of contagion. At the centre of The World in Depression is the 1931 financial crisis, arguably the event that turned an already serious recession into the most severe downturn and economic catastrophe of the 20th century. The 1931 crisis began, as Kindleberger observes, in a relatively minor European financial centre, Vienna, but when left untreated leapfrogged first to Berlin and then, with even graver consequences, to London and New York. This is the 20th century’s most dramatic reminder of quickly how financial crises can metastasise almost instantaneously.
I don't think this is "arguable". First things first... Creditanstalt was decidedly not a "relatively minor" institution; as Ben Bernanke has noted it was one of the largest (and most well-connected) banks in Europe. Moreover, it wasn't the first major bank to fail. To give just one example, the Bank of the United States (a private bank located in New York) failed in December, 1930 -- one of the largest bank failures in U.S. history, which occurred months before the collapse of Creditanstalt. Indeed, in his monetary history of the U.S. Milton Friedman considered the collapse of the Bank of the U.S. as the pivotal moment that tipped the U.S. from recession into depression. In general, financial instability in the U.S. seemed to precede financial instability in Europe from 1929 on.

The U.S. and much of Europe was already in depression before the collapse of Creditanstalt. Indeed, chronology suggests that Delong & Eichengreen have causality reversed: the Depression (combined with the fallout from losing WWI, including reparations) caused the collapse of Creditanstalt, not the other way around. U.S. industrial production had fallen by nearly 25% before Creditanstalt's collapse. Farms prices were down by 40%. The financial system was decimated. Trade was collapsing. The signal events occurred in 1929, not 1931. By the latter date we are talking about knock-on effects, not first causes.

My view is not particularly controversial. The collapse of Creditanstalt exacerbated a pre-existing panic, but it did not generate one sui generis.

Contagion is powerful, but it tends to operate from the center outward rather than from the periphery inward.* The best read of the collapse of Creditanstalt is that it was evidence of contagion rather than the epicenter of it.

That said, Kindleberger's book is very good in general, as is the new Delong/Eichengreen intro.

*We've blogged about this before, and we have a piece that will hopefully be forthcoming soon that makes this case explicitly. For a simplistic precis see this Foreign Policy piece that Thomas and I recently placed.

P.S. While thinking about this I stumbled across this piece from a 1952 issue of Time which gets nearly every detail wrong in its first paragraph. For starters: Creditanstalt collapsed in 1931, not 1929; it was not controlled by the Rothschilds until after that collapse; Hitler persecuted the bank during Anschluss for that reason, so it not quite fair to say that the bank "served" Hitler. The rest of the article is blocked to nonsubscribers so I (mercifully) can't read it.


Agreeing and Disagreeing with Kindleberger (and Delong and Eichengreen)




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